5|25: Celebrating Five Years of Autism Science Day 5: Diagnosis at 14 Months
In honor of the anniversary of Autism Speaks’ founding on Feb 25, for the next 25 days we will be sharing stories about the many significant scientific advances that have occurred during our first five years together. Our fifth item is Diagnosis at 14 Months.
In a study in the Archives of General Psychiatry, researchers from the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland found that autism can be diagnosed at close to one year of age, which is the earliest the disorder has ever been diagnosed. The study, which evaluated social and communication development in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from 14 to 36 months of age, revealed that approximately half of all children with autism can be diagnosed around the first birthday. The remaining half will be diagnosed later, and their development may unfold very differently than children whose ASD is diagnosable around the first birthday. Early diagnosis of the disorder allows for early intervention, which can make a major difference in helping children with autism reach their full potential
Researchers examined social and communication development in infants at high and low risk for ASD starting at 14 months of age and ending at 30 or 36 months. Half of the children with a final diagnosis of ASD made at 30 or 36 months of age had been diagnosed with the disorder at 14 months, and the other half were diagnosed after 14 months. Through repeated observation and the use of standardized tests of development, researchers identified, for the first time, disruptions in social, communication and play development that were indicative of ASD in 14-month olds. Multiple signs indicating these developmental disruptions appear simultaneously in children with the disorder.
The current study reveals that autism often involves a progression, with the disorder claiming or presenting itself between 14 and 24 months of age. Some children with only mild delays at 14 months of age could go on to be diagnosed with ASD. The researchers observed distinct differences in the developmental paths, or trajectories, of children with early versus later diagnosis of ASD. While some children developed very slowly and displayed social and communication abnormalities associated with ASD at 14 months of age, others showed only mild delays with a gradual onset of autism symptoms, culminating in the diagnosis of ASD by 36 months.
If parents suspect something is wrong with their child’s development, or that their child is losing skills during their first few years of life, they should talk to their pediatrician or another developmental expert. This and other autism studies suggest that the “wait and see” method, which is often recommended to concerned parents, could lead to missed opportunities for early intervention during this time period.
To read the complete story, including the signs of developmental disruptions for which parents and pediatricians should be watching, please click here http://www.autismspeaks.org/inthenews/landa_study.php.
Update since this story was run: Members of the Baby Siblings Research Consortium, a collaboration between Autism Speaks and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, have now published multiple scientific studies demonstrating that early signs of autism can reliably be seen as early as 12-14 months of age. This improved understanding of the early signs and symptoms of autism has permitted development of new measurement tools to both quantify and diagnose autism symptoms earlier than ever before. For example, the Autism Observational Scale for Infants or AOSI was published by Autism Speaks’ grantees in 2008 and is currently a part of many protocols involving early autism diagnosis and intervention. It has been shown to accurately detect autism as early as 12 months of age. In addition, a modification of the ADOS, called the ADOS-t, was released in 2008 to enhance the clinical diagnosis of autism, indicating a range of concern for children as young as 12 months of age. Both tools are huge advances in the field of diagnosis, allowing for reliable early detection and placement in appropriate intervention services.